Fair Use


FAIR USE NOTICE: Some of the material on this site may contain copyrighted material whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making this material available to our readers in an effort to advance the understanding of political, economic, social and environmental issues, including but not limited to government conspiracies, corruption, warmongering, terrorism, drug trafficking and abuse of power, as well as non-government related conspiracies, such as secret societies, globalism, geoengineering, aliens, UFO's and more. 

We believe this constitutes ‘fair use’ of the copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to the various purposes as described below:

What is Fair Use?

The "fair use" exemption to (U.S.) copyright law was created to allow things such as commentary, parody, news reporting, research and education about copyrighted works without the permission of the author. That's vital so that copyright law doesn't block your freedom to express your own works -- only the ability to appropriate other people's. Intent, and damage to the commercial value of the work are important considerations.

Fair use should not harm the commercial value of the work -- in the sense of people no longer needing to buy it (which is another reason why reproduction of the entire work is a problem.)

The "fair use" concept varies from country to country, and has different names (such as "fair dealing" in Canada) and other limitations outside the USA.

Fair use doctrine at 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

Sec. 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use


Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
(United State Code, Title 17 - Copyrights)

A fair use of copyrighted materials does not need to meet all four fair use factors. A successful fair use may meet only one factor, or some combination of the factors. For example, a teacher may decide to show an entire film in a classroom setting. This use fails on factor #3, substantiality, because it entails consuming the entire work, and not just a portion. However, the single classroom showing being unlikely to effect the market value of the film (#4) and the educational purpose of the use (#1) both reinforce the right to fair use.

NOTE: If you wish to use such copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’…you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Also see:

Digital Millennium Copyright Act - DMCA
Electronic Frontier Foundation - Intellectual Property
Templeton's - 10 Big Myths about copyright explained
BeeZone - Fair Use Statute 107

Resources:

Electronic Frontier Foundationdefending civil liberties in the digital world